Usos da Voz Passiva (continuação)
5. Somente verbos transitivos podem ser transformados em construção passiva. Verbos intransitivos não possuem objeto, dessa forma não há como formar o sujeito na voz passiva, já que o objeto da voz ativa torna-se o sujeito da voz passiva. Alguns verbos transitivos também não podem ser transformados em construção passiva; a maioria deles são verbos que se referem a estados e não a ações, como fit, have, lack, resemble, suit. Veja alguns exemplos de frases com verbos transitivos em que a voz passiva não ocorre:
They have a nice house. (NOT A nice house is had by them.)
My shoes don't fit me. (NOT I'm not fitted by my shoes.)
She was having a bath. (NOT A bath was being had by her.)
Angela resembles a Greek goddess. (NOT A Greek goddess is resembled by Angela.)
Your mother lacks tact. (NOT Tact is lacked by your mother.)
6. Em estruturas ativas, os verbos hear, see, make e help podem ser seguidos por objeto + verbo no infinitivo sem to, já em estruturas passivas, estes verbos devem ser seguidos pelo verbo com o to. Observe:
- I saw him (to) come out of the house. (active structure)
He was seen to come out of the house. (passive structure)
- They made him (to) tell them everything. (active structure)
He was made to tell them everything. (passive structure)
- They helped him (to) get out of the country. (active structure)
He was helped to get out of the country. (passive structure)
7. Alguns verbos como say, believe, consider, expect, know, report, think, understand, allege admitem duas formas para a voz passiva. Observe alguns exemplos:
She is said to work 14 hours a day.
It is said that she works 14 hours a day.
The boy is believed to be wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.
It is believed that the boy is wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.
The strike is expected to end soon. ou It is expected that it will end soon.
He is alleged to have hit a policeman. ou It is alleged that he hit a policeman.
John is said to be working very hard.
It is said that John is working very hard.
Two people are reported to have been injured in the explosion.
It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion.
He has been said to love Lauren. ou It has been said that he loves Lauren.
Mark was believed to have translated the lyrics. ou It was believed that Mark had translated the lyrics.
8. Para formar a interrogativa, antepomos ao sujeito o verbo auxiliar que compõe o tempo verbal da voz passiva. Para a negativa, basta acrescentar not ao auxiliar. Observe:
The office is cleaned every day. (affirmative form)
Is the office cleaned every day? (interrogative form)
The office is not cleaned every day. (negative form)
OBSERVAÇÃO: Os tempos verbais Present Perfect Progressive, Past Perfect Progressive, Future Progressive e Future Perfect Progressive não são comuns na voz passiva.